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SYMPOSIUM PROGRAM

(Tentative)

 

 

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

 

Sunday, 19 July 2009

Time

Program

Code

Page

Room

09:30-16:00

Registration

 

 

Foyer

19:00-21:00

Welcome Reception

 

 

To be identified

  Up
 
 

 

Monday, 20 July 2009

Time

Program

Room

08.00-09.00

Registration

 

09.00-09.10

Introductory Remarks : Chairman of IAS 2009:   Padermsak Jarayabhand  

Napalai A

09.10-09.20

Welcome Remark : Mayor of Pattaya City:   Ithiphol Kunpleum

Napalai A

09.20-09.30

Welcome Remark : President of International Abalone Society

Napalai A

09.30-09.40

Welcome Remark : Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives

Napalai A

09.40-10.00

Group Photo

Napalai A

10.00-10.30

Coffee Break

Foyer

Time

Program

Code

Page

Room

International Production & Marketing

Chairperson: PETER A. COOK

10.30-11.00

WORLD ABALONE SUPPLY, MARKETS AND PRICING: HISTORICAL, CURRENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTIVE

     : H. ROY GORDON AND PETER A. COOK

K-01

 

Napalai A

Country presentations I

11.00-11.15

AUSTRALIA : MARK  GERVIS

 

 

Napalai A

11.15-11.30

CHILE : ROBERT  FLORES-AGUILAR

O-01

 

Napalai A

11.30-11.45

CHINA : H. ROY GORDON

 

 

Napalai A

11.45-12.00

MEXICO : RICARDO SEARCY-BERNAL

O-02

 

Napalai A

12.00-13.30

Lunch Break

Poster and Exhibition

 

 

Napalai D

Napalai E

Country presentations II

Chairperson : PRASERT  SOBHON

Co-chairperson: KRIENGKRAI SATAPORNVANIT

13.30-13.45

NEW ZEALAND : JOHN ILLINGSWORTH

 

 

Napalai A

13.45-14.00

PHILIPPINES : VINCENT C. ENCENA II

O-03

 

Napalai A

14.00-14.15

SOUTH AFRICA : PETER BRITZ

 

 

Napalai A

14.15-14.30

THAILAND : PADERMSAK  JARAYABHAND

O-04

 

Napalai A

14.30-14.45

USA : H. ROY GORDON

 

 

Napalai A

14.45-15.00

Coffee Break

 

 

Foyer

Pathology & Disease

Chairperson: PRASERT  SOBHON

Co-chairperson: KRIENGKRAI SATAPORNVANIT

15.00-15.20

EMERGENCE OF AN ABALONE HERPES-LIKE VIRUS IN AUSTRALIA

     : CORBEIL SERGE1*, WILLIAMS LYNETTE, HYATT ALEX, McCOLL KEN, COLLINGS AXEL, WONG FRANK, SAVIN KEITH, MURDOCH BRONWYN, WARNER SIMONE, LANCASTER MALCOLM TAN JIANMING , COGAN NOEL, CHANG PEN AND CRANE MARK

O-05

 

Napalai A

15.20-15.40

AN OVERVIEW OF THE DISEASE DUE TO VIBRIO HARVEYI IN THE EUROPEAN ABALONE, HALIOTIS  TUBERCULATA

     : TRAVERS M.A., FRIEDMAN, C. S., HUCHETTE S., KOKEN M. AND PAILLARD C.*

O-06

 

Napalai A

15.40-16.00

ABALONE TUBERCLE MYCOSIS: AN EMERGING DISEASE IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN ABALONE MARICULTURE INDUSTRY

     : BRETT MACEY*, KEVIC CHRISTISON AND ANNA MOUTON

O-52

 

Napalai A

16.00-18.00

Poster and Exhibition

 

 

Napalai E

  Up

 

Tuesday, 21 July 2009

Time

Program

Code

Page

Room

Ecology & Fishery Management I

Chairperson:  ROBERTO FLORES-AQUILAR

Co-chairperson: JIRAPORN GASORNCHAN

08.20-08.40

IS SOUTH AFRICA'S ABALONE FISHERY GOVERNABLE? HOW A "LEGAL", RIGHTS BASED FISHERY BECAME "ILLEGAL": IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERY MANAGEMENT

     : PETER BRITZ*, SERGE RAEMAEKERS AND MARIA HAUCK

O-07

 

Napalai A

08.40-09.00

MONITORING THE SOUTH AFRICAN ABALONE RESOURCE DURING FISHERY CLOSURE

     : GENEVIEVE MAHARAJ, ROB TARR & ANGUS MACKENZIE

O-53

 

Napalai A

09.00-09.20

COMPARATIVE EFFICACY ON ABALONE FISHERIES MANAGEMENT WITH SUNDRY POLICIES AND COMBINATIONS

     : TOYOMITSU HORII*, SETSUO KIYOMOTO AND YOSHIYUKI NAKAMURA

O-08

 

Napalai A

09.20-09.40

ECOYSTEM ENGINEERS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: SUPPORTING NORTHERN ABALONE AND SPECIES RICHNESS

     : LAURA ROGERS-BENNETT*, BRIAN L. ALLEN  AND DON ROTHAUS

O-09

 

Napalai A

09.40-10.00

THE USE OF NEAREST-NEIGHBOR DISTANCE, AGGREGATION SIZE, AND POPULATION DENSITY ESTIMATION METHODS IN DEVELOPING BIOLOGICAL REFERENCE POINTS

     : CYNTHIA A. BUTTON1*, AND LAURA ROGERS-BENNETT

O-10

 

Napalai A

10.00-10.20

UPDATE ON NORTHERN ABALONE HALIOTIS KAMTSCHATKANA STATUS AND RECOVERY EFFORT IN CANADA

     : JOANNE LESSARD*, AND LAURIE CONVEY

O-11

 

Napalai A

10.20-10.40

Coffee Break

 

 

Foyer

Ecology & Fishery Management II

Chairperson : LAURA ROGERS-BENNETT

Co-chairperson: SUWAT  TANYAROS

10.40-11.00

A PILOT PROJECT TO ENHANCE NORTHERN ABALONE REPRODUCTION IN BARKLEY SOUND, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA: RESULTS FROM DENSITY SURVEYS

     : JOANNE LESSARD* AND ALAN CAMPBELL

O-12

 

Napalai A

11.00-11.20

THE EFFECT OF PREDATOR EXCLUSION ON SURVIVAL RATES OF OUTPLANTED JUVENILE NORTHERN ABALONE HALIOTIS KAMTSCHATKANA IN BARKLEY SOUND, CANADA

     : KAITLYN READ, JOANNE LESSARD*, AND ELIZABETH G. BOULDING

O-13

 

Napalai A

11.20-11.40

THE INFLUENCE OF REARING METHOD ON PINTO ABALONE HALIOTIS KAMTSCHATKANA GROWHT, SURVIVAL AND OUTPLANT SUCCESS IN WASHINGTON STATE

     : BETHANY C. STEVICK*, CAROLYN FRIEDMAN, DON ROTHAUS, KRISTINA STRAUS, BRENT VADOPALAS AND GLENN R. VANBLARICOM

O-14

 

Napalai A

11.40-12.00

DEMOGRAPHIC SIGNS OF SMALL-SCALE RECOVERY OF BLACK ABALONE (HALIOTIS CRACHERODII LEACH, 1814) ON AN ISOLATED ISLAND OFF THE COAST OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, USA

     : MELISSA NEUMAN*, DAVID WITTING AND GLENN VANBLARICOM

O-15

 

Napalai A

12.00-12.20

THE CAPTURE AND IDENTIFICATION OF LARVAL AND NEWLY SETTLED RED ABALONE IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA

     : LAURA ROGERS-BENNETT*, TOYOMITSU HORII  AND MASAMI HAMAGUCHI

O-16

 

Napalai A

12.20-13.30

Lunch Break

Poster and Exhibition

 

 

Napalai D

Napalai E

Ecology & Fishery Management III

Chairperson: TOMOHIKO KAWAMURA

Co-chairperson: MONTHON GANMANEE

13.30-13.50

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GROWTH, SIZE AT MATURITY AND WATER TEMPERATURE IN WILD POPULATIONS OF HALIOTIS RUBRA

FROM TASMANIA, AUSTRALIA.

     : FAY HELIDONIOTIS* AND MALCOLM HADDON

O-17

 

Napalai A

13.50-14.10

SEEDING CULTURED GREEN-LIP ABALONE (HALIOTIS LAEVIGATA) AT SUSTAINABLE DENSITIES IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA

     : SABINE DAUME, FRANK FABRIS, MARK DAVIDSON, FIONA PARKER, DAVE

MURPHY, ANTHONY HART

O-18

 

Napalai A

14.10-14.30

A FIELD EXPERIMENT FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ARTIFICIAL ABALONE REEFS ALONG THE COAST OF TANEGASHIMA

     : KEIGO EBATA*, AKIRA HIGASHI, AKIHIRO SHIOMITSU, SEIICHI SAISHO,  TOSHIMITSU IKEDA AND YOICHIRO IDE

O-19

 

Napalai A

14.30-14.50

SIMULATING DISPERSAL PROCESSES OF ABALONE LARVAE USING A COUPLED PARTICLE-TRACKING AND HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL

     : YOICHI MIYAKE*, SHINGO KIMURA, TOMOHIKO KAWAMURA, TOYOMITSU HORII, HIROAKI KUROGI AND TAKASHI KITAGAWA

O-20

 

Napalai A

14.50-15.10

EARLY LIFE ECOLOGY OF ABALONE IN CCA HABITATS 

I. ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF LARVAL SELECTIVE SETTLEMENT

     : TOMOHIKO KAWAMURA*, HIDEKI TAKAMI, TOSHIHIRO ONITSUKA, NAM-IL WON, JUN HAYAKAWA

O-21

 

Napalai A

15.10-15.30

Coffee Break

 

 

Foyer

Ecology & Fishery Management IV

Chairperson: PETER BRITZ

Co-chairperson: JINTANA  NAGRANAD

15.30-15.50

EARLY LIFE ECOLOGY OF ABALONE IN CCA HABITATS 

II. DIETARY VALUES OF GAMETOPHYTE AND JUVENILE SPOROPHYTE  OF A BROWN MACROALGA (EISENIA BICYCLIS) FOR JUVENILE

H. DIVERSICOLOR

     : TOSHIHIRO ONITSUKA, TOMOHIKO KAWAMURA*, SHUNSUKE IWANAGA, SATOSHI OHASHI, TOYOMITSU HORII

O-22

 

Napalai A

15.50-16.10

EARLY LIFE ECOLOGY OF ABALONE IN CCA HABITATS

III. STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSES AS A TOOL TO EXAMINE POST-LARVAL DIETS

     : NAM-IL WON*, TOMOHIKO KAWAMURA, HIDEKI TAKAMI AND YOSHIRO WATANABE

O-23

 

Napalai A

16.10-16.30

EARLY LIFE ECOLOGY OF ABALONE IN CCA HABITATS

IV. FOOD WEB STRUCTURES REVEALED BY STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSES

     : NAM-IL WON*, TOMOHIKO KAWAMURA, HIDEKI TAKAMI, JUN HAYAKAWA, TOSHIHIRO ONITSUKA, TOYOMITSU HORII AND YOSHIRO WATANABE

O-24

 

Napalai A

16.30-16.50

EARLY LIFE ECOLOGY OF ABALONE IN CCA HABITATS

V. PREDATION OF A SMALL PREDATORY WHELK ERGALATAX CONTRACTUS  ON                  H. DIVERSICOLOR AND A TURBAN SNAIL TURBO CORNUTUS

IN RELATION TO THEIR HABITATS

     : JUN HAYAKAWA*, TSUKASA WAKI,TOSHIHIRO ONITSUKA, TOMOHIKO KAWAMURA, TOYOMITSU HORII, NAM-IL WON AND YOSHIRO WATANABE

O-25

 

Napalai A

16.50-17.10

EARLY LIFE ECOLOGY OF ABALONE IN CCA HABITATS

VI. CARNIVOROUS BEHAVIOR OF JUVENILE SEA URCHINS

     : ALICIA TOYO BRANDT*, NAM-IL WON, HIDEKI TAKAMI, TOMOHIKO KAWAMURA AND YOSHIRO WATANABE

O-26

 

Napalai A

 

 

 Up


Wednesday, 22 July 2009

Time

Program

Code

Page

Room

Genetics & Biotechnology I

Chairperson: ANTON  KRSINICH

Co-chairperson: TANES  POOMTONG

09.00-09.20

EVIDENCE FOR GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN WESTERN AND EASTERN WILD POPULATIONS OF HALIOTIS MIDAE

     : ALETTA VAN DER MERWE (BESTER)*, MARIA EUGENIA D’AMATO, FILIP VOLCKAERT AND ROUVAY ROODT-WILDING

O-27

33

Napalai A

09.20-09.40

DEVELOPMENT OF POPULATION-SPECIFIC SCAR MARKERS IN THAI ABALONE, HALIOTIS ASININA, LINNAEUS 1758, USING AFLP TECHNIQUE

     : PARICHART PRAIPUE*, SIRAWUT KLINBUNGA AND PADERMSAK JARAYABHAND

O-28

34

Napalai A

09.40-10.00

SPECIES-SPECIFIC SCAR MARKER OF THAI ABALONE HALIOTIS ASININA, LINNAEUS, 1758, IN THAI WATERS

     : SIRAWUT KLINBUNGA*, PITI AMPARYUP AND PADERMSAK JARAYABHAND

O-29

35

Napalai A

10.00-10.20

IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF SEX-SPECIFIC EXPRESSION MARKERS OF THAI ABALONE HALIOTIS ASININA, LINNAEUS, 1758

     : PITI AMPARYUP, SIRAWUT KLINBUNGA* AND PADERMSAK JARAYABHAND

O-30

36

Napalai A

10.20-10.40

Coffee Break

Foyer

Genetics & Biotechnology II

Chairperson: SUPATTRA  URAIWAN

Co-chairperson: ANEK  SOPON

10.40-11.00

DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION IN HALIOTIS ASININA NEURAL GANGLIA DURING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION

     : PATRICK YORK*, SCOTT CUMMINS, BEN WOODCROFT, SANDIE DEGNAN AND BERNARD DEGNAN

O-31

37

Napalai A

11.00-11.20

MICROSATELLITE LOCI, EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZE AND GENETIC DIVERISTY IN ABALONE STOCKS

     : SHARON A. APPLEYARD*AND NATASHA A. CARR

O-32

38

Napalai A

11.20-11.40

MOLECULAR GENETIC (AND OTHER) TOOLS FOR GENETIC ENHANCEMENT IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN ABALONE (HALIOTIS MIDAE)

     : RUHAN SLABBERT, ADELLE ROUX, MATHILDE VAN DER MERWE, LORAINE WATSON, PEIZHENG WANG, DANIE BRINK AND  ROUVAY ROODT-WILDING*

O-33

39

Napalai A

11.40-12.00

COMBINING ABILITY FOR GROWTH AND SURVIVAL IN DIALLEL CROSSING POPULATIONS OF SMALL ABALONE

     : WEIWIE YOU*, CAIHUAN KE, XUAN LUO AND DEXIANG WANG

O-34

40

Napalai A

12.00-12.20

GENETIC ARCHITECTURE OF KEY TRAITS IN A COMMERCIAL SELECTIVE BREEDING PROGRAM

     : PETER KUBE*, LUKE MCPHERSON, TRAVIS BAULCH, SHARON APPLEYARD, ANTON KRSINICH, NICHOLAS ELLIOTT, MATTHEW HAMILTON, AND CHRIS BOLCH

O-35

41

Napalai A

12.20-13.50

Lunch Break

Poster and Exhibition

Napalai D

Napalai E

Genetics & Biotechnology III

Chairperson: SIRAWUT  KLINBUNGA

Co-chairperson: ATRA  KLINBUNGA

13.50-14.10

EFFECTS OF INBREEDING DEPRESSION IN PACIFIC ABALONE, HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI

     : TOSHIMASA KOBAYASHI* AND AKIHIRO KIJIMA

O-36

42

Napalai A

14.10-14.30

FACTORS  AFFECTING  THE  FERTILIZATION SUCCESS IN LABORATORY HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI  AND HALIOTIS GIGANTEA

     :XUAN LUO*, CAIHUAN KE, WEIWEI YOU AND DEXIANG WANG

O-37

43

Napalai A

14.30-14.50

GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN ABALONE (HALIOTIS MIDAE) THROUGH SELECTIVE BREEDING

     : BRINK, D.*, VLOK A.C., SADIE, A., ROODT-WILDING, R. AND SLABBERT, R.

O-38

44

Napalai A

14.50-15.10

ASSESSMENT OF GROWTH , YIELD AND REPRODUCTIVE INDICATORS IN TRIPLOID AND DIPLOID GENOTYPES OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN ABALONE (HALIOTIS MIDAE)

     : BRINK, D.*, SCHOONBEE, L., PRINS, N., SARDIE, A., AND SLABBERT, R.

O-39

45

Napalai A

15.10-15.30

SHELLFISH AND SNPCHIPS – OPPORTUNITY FOR SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS IN ABALONE BREEDING WITH  INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION

     : SHARON A. APPLEYARD*, JANE E. SYMONDS, JUNG-HA KANG, YONG-SEOK LEE, SONJA DOMINIK, NATASHA A. CARR AND

NICHOLAS G. ELLIOTT

O-40

46

Napalai A

15.30-16.00

Coffee Break

Foyer

16.00-17.00

Poster and Exhibition

Napalai E



 Up


Thursday, 23 July 2009

Time

Program

Code

Page

Room

Biology & Physiology

Chairperson: PETER  HANNA

Co-chairperson: AJCHARAPORN  PIUMSOMBOON

08.40-09.00

BIOMINERALIZATION MARKERS DURING EARLY STAGES OF SHELL FORMATION IN THE ABALONE Haliotis tuberculata

     : GAUME BÉATRICE1*, HELLÉOUET MARIE-NOËLLE, DENIS FRANÇOISE, FOUCHEREAU-PERON MARTINE, HUCHETTE SYLVAIN, AUZOUX-BORDENAVE STÉPHANIE

O-41

 

Napalai A

09.00-09.20

ABALONE ATTRACTION: SEX-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE TRAIL MUCUS OF

HALIOTIS ASININA

     : SCOTT CUMMINS*, CHITRAPORN KUANPRADIT, MICHAEL STEWART, PETER

HANNA, PRASERT SOBHON, JITTIPAN CHAVADEJ AND BERNIE BEGNAN

O-42

 

Napalai A

09.20-09.40

ENERGY BUDGET OF THAI ABALONE, Haliotis asinina, REARING IN A SEMI-CLOSED RE-CIRCULATING LAND-BASED SYSTEM (SRLS)

     : MONTHON GANMANEE*,NATTARIN SIRIRUSTANANUN AND PADERMSAK JARAYABHAND

O-43

 

Napalai A

09.40-10.00

THE EFFECTS OF STOCKING DENSITY, FEED RATION AND WATER FLOW RATE ON ABALONE GROWTH IN SLAB TANKS.

      : MATTHEW WASSNIG *, ROBERT DAY, RODNEY ROBERTS, ANTON KRSINICH

O-44

 

Napalai A

10.00-10.20

ROLE OF SELF-PROPULSION AND SHEAR FLOW IN LARVAL SETTLEMENT

      : JULIA NOVAK, GREGORY ZILMAN * AND YEHUDA BENAYAHU

O-45

 

Napalai A

10.20-10.40

Coffee Break

 

 

Foyer

Larval Biology & Nutrition & Biochemistry

Chairperson: RODNEY  ROBERTS

Co-chairperson: PORCHAM  ARANYAKANANDA

10.40-11.00

RECENT RESEARCH ON ABALONE HALIOTIS SPP. METAMORPHOSIS INDUCTION AND POSTLARVAL CULTURE

     : RICARDO SEARCY-BERNAL

O-46

 

Napalai A

11.00-11.20

GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF HALIOTIS RUFESCENS POSTLARVAE WITH DIFFERENT NAVICULA INCERTA FEEDING REGIMES

     : CASANDRA ANGUIANO-BELTRÁN*, RICARDO SEARCY-BERNAL AND CLAUDIA MIRANDA-SAUCEDO

O-47

 

Napalai A

11.20-11.40

NEW CULTURE SYSTEM FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BENTHIC DIATOMS AND THEIR USE TO FEED RED ABALONE POSTLARVAE

     : M. DEL PILAR SÁNCHEZ-SAAVEDRA* AND EDEN ANTONIO ARCE-PATRÓN

O-48

 

Napalai A

11.40-12.00

USE OF ALGAL DIETS TO AID EARLY WEANING IN THE ABALONE HALIOTIS IRIS

     : MATT DYCK*, ANDREW JEFFS AND RODNEY ROBERTS

O-49

 

Napalai A

12.00-12.20

DEVELOPMENT OF A WEANING FEED FOR THE

SOUTH AFRICAN ABALONE HALIOTIS MIDAE

     : JOHANNES A. ESTERHUIZEN*, ALICE JOHNSON, IMTIYAZ ISMAIL, CLIFFORD L.W.

JONES AND PETER J. BRITZ

O-50

 

Napalai A

12.20-12.40

QUALITY IN AUSTRALIAN ABALONE: A TASTE-ACTIVE CHEMICAL COMPONENT PERSPECTIVE

     : MIRIAM FLUCKIGER* AND MALCOLM BROWN3

O-51

 

Napalai A

12.40-13.00

THE PROTEIN, ENERGY AND LIPID REQUIREMENTS OF FARMED SOUTH AFRICAN ABALONE HALIOTIS MIDAE

     : ALISTAIR J. GREEN, CLIFFORD L.W. JONES* AND PETER J. BRITZ

O-54

 

 

13.00-14.00

Lunch Break

 

 

Napalai D

14.00-16.00

WWF ABALONE WORKSHOP

 

 

To be identified

16.00-16.20

Coffee Break

 

 

Foyer

16.20-17.00

GENERAL MEETING

 

 

Napalai A

17.00-17.20

CLOSING

 

 

Napalai A

17.30-21.00

FAREWELL PARTY

Nong Nooch Tropical Garden



 Up

Friday, 24 July 2009

Time

Program

Venue

08.00-11.00

EXCURSION I

Burapha University

08.00-17.00

EXCURSION II

Sichang Marine Science Research and Training Station

 Up

 

Saturday, 25 July 2009

Time

Program

Venue

09.00-17.00

WWF Abalone Dialogue Meeting

pdf Invitation letter

To be identified

 Up

 

 

 

 

 

FLOOR PLAN

resize_floorplan

Click here for full size photo.

 
 

 

 
IAS 2009 - Pattaya, Thailand - 7th International Abalone Symposium

 

Co-Organized By
Marine Science Association of Thailand
Faculty of Science, Chulalong University
Aquatic Resources Research Institute

Supported By
Burapha University
Mahidol University

Sponsored By
Commission on Higher Education
Marifeed (Pty) Ltd
VINCI Technology Co.,Ltd ALGAMAR
Commission on Higher Education Marifeed (Pty) Ltd Burapha University Office of Small and Medium Enterprises Promotion Mahidol University King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya, Trang Campus Pattaya City Tourism Authority of Thailand, Pattaya Office Thailand convention & exhibition bureau

Marine Science Association of Thailand Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University Aquatic Resources Research Institute

Department of Fisheries National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Pattaya City Office of Small and Medium Enterprises Promotion Tourism Authority of Thailand Thailand Convention & Exhibition bureau Thailand Research Fund Centro de Investigaci?n i-mar Aquatic Eco-Systems, Inc.